JED, Vol 15, No.1, April 2013, pp 49-73 | DOI: 10.33301/2013015.01.03
Rural Industrialization in Korea: Policy Program, Performance and Rural Entrepreneurship
Abstract:From the early seventies the Korean Government has adopted a rural industrialization policy as an important measure for promoting rural development. It has been perceived that through this measure the over-concentration of economic activity would be controlled and dispersed. Development of rural industrialization has passed through three different phases: i) the period of promoting rural cottage-type industries (1960-80); ii) the period of rural industrial park establishment; and iii) a stagnation period after the early 1990s. Throughout the overall period government policy changed from an individual project-oriented approach to a diversified and comprehensive policy program. The policy programs, such as the development of rural industrial parks, off-farm income source development and vocational training programs for farm youths, have helped in promoting rural industrialization. On the other hand, policy programs promoting rural out-migration and unbalanced regional development policy have impacted negatively on rural industrialization. Presently one of the serious policy issues facing rural industries is how to secure a young labor force and how to promote rural entrepreneurship. In addition, rural development efforts by local government and authorities are necessary in order to increase investment from urban-based entrepreneur firms.
Keywords:Rural industrialization, farm household, off-farm income, rural development, rural industrial park, rural entrepreneurship.